Java Frameworks to Use in 2023


July 18, 2023

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Java frameworks to build powerful and modern Java applications in 2023, including Spring, Hibernate, Vaadin and more!


I have put together a list of the most common Java frameworks for you. I hope this description is short, clear, and gives you enough information to be very useful to you.

I have also added links to this blog post that lead to interview questions and answers about Java frameworks. If you want to hire new Java programmers for your project, you might need them.

At the end of the blog post, you can find more information that can help you to get Java developers.

The Popularity of Java

The popularity of Java among other programming languages is shown by the TIOBE index, which is a trusted indicator of the popularity of programming languages. As you can see, Java is decreasing year after year.

Popularity of Java - Tiobe Index - Bluebird Blog

Popular Java Frameworks

Java Frameworks

Main area of use

Main strength

Brief Description

Best Features

Java Frameworks - Spring

Enterprise Apps

Dependency Injection

Spring is a Java framework to build enterprise applications, that has tools for dependency injection and more.

Robustness, modularity, integration with other frameworks, support for various data access technologies, excellent documentation

Java Frameworks - Struts

Web Development

MVC Architecture

Struts is a popular (and a bit legacy) Java framework for developing web applications based on the MVC architecture.

Easy integration, strong community support, built-in validation, and data binding, extensible and customizable

Java Frameworks - Hibernate

Data Persistence

Object-Relational Mapping (ORM)

Hibernate is a widely-used Java framework for mapping Java objects to relational databases, simplifying data persistence operations.

Transparent persistence, lazy loading, caching, querying capabilities, database portability

Java Frameworks - Apache Wicket

Web Development


Apache Wicket is a component-based Java framework that focuses on simplicity and reusability of UI components.

Declarative UI programming, easy testing, support for AJAX and event-driven programming, excellent documentation

Java Frameworks - Play

Web Development


Play is a high-productivity Java framework designed for building scalable and fast web applications.

Hot-reloading, stateless architecture, support for reactive programming, integrated testing framework, built-in security

Java Framework - Vaadin

Web Development

Rich UI Components

Vaadin is one of the Java frameworks that are created for building modern web applications with a rich user interface using reusable UI components.

Drag-and-drop UI building, automatic client-server communication, built-in data binding, theming and customization

Framework - Spark

Web Development


Spark is a lightweight Java framework. It focuses on simplicity and speed, allowing developers to build RESTful services.

Minimal configuration, embedded server, easy testing, fast execution, integration with other Java frameworks

Java Framework - Dropwizard

Web Development

Easy Configuration

Dropwizard is a framework for building production-ready web services, that is emphasizing simplicity and easy configuration.

Opinionated yet flexible, seamless integration of different components, built-in metrics and health checks, easy monitoring

Java Framework - JHipster

Web Development


JHipster is a full-stack Java framework that combines Spring Boot, Angular, and other technologies for rapid application development.

Code generation, integrated security, microservices architecture, developer-friendly tooling, support for modern front-end frameworks

Framework - Camel


Enterprise Integration

Camel is a powerful integration Java framework for routing and mediation rules, enabling seamless integration between various systems.

Extensive integration capabilities, support for numerous protocols and data formats, flexible routing and transformation rules

Java Framework - Jersey

Web Services

RESTful Services

Jersey is a popular Java framework for building RESTful web services in Java, providing an implementation of the JAX-RS specification.

Simple API design, easy resource mapping, support for content negotiation, client and server-side capabilities

Framework - Grails

Web Development

Rapid Development

Grails is a dynamic Groovy-based framework that leverages the power of Spring Boot, providing a simplified and rapid development experience.

Convention-over-configuration, seamless integration with Spring ecosystem, built-in support for ORM and testing, extensive plugin ecosystem

Java Frameworks for Beginners

Java frameworks are essential technologies for modern web and enterprise development. With numerous frameworks to choose from, it can be overwhelming for beginners to know where to start. This section will explore popular Java frameworks and their benefits for beginners.

Spring Boot - Bluebird Blog

The first framework to consider is Spring Boot. It is beginner-friendly and simplifies Java web development with features like auto-configuration and starter dependencies. Additionally, Spring Boot is well-supported, with abundant online resources available for help and troubleshooting.

Java Frameworks - JHipster - Bluebird Blog

JHipster is another popular choice. It is a full-stack framework that includes everything needed to start Java web development. With features like a user interface generator and integration with Spring Boot and AngularJS, JHipster enables beginners to quickly create feature-rich web applications.

Java Frameworks - Dropwizard - Bluebird Blog

For those who prefer a lightweight option, Dropwizard is worth considering. It is specifically designed for creating simple, production-ready web applications. Dropwizard provides essential components such as a web server, database connector, and templating engine, making it perfect for beginners who want to create straightforward Java web applications.

Java Frameworks - Struts - Bluebird Blog

Lastly, Apache Struts is a widely-used open-source framework for Java web applications. It offers features like an action-based programming model and integration with Java EE technologies, making it a versatile choice for feature-rich Java web development.

These are a few of the most popular Java frameworks for beginners. Regardless of the chosen framework, beginners can confidently progress on their journey to becoming Java web developers.

Java Frameworks for Backend

Java offers a range of powerful tools and frameworks for backend development. The most popular ones include Spring, Hibernate, and Struts.

Java Frameworks - Spring - Bluebird Blog

Spring is a lightweight framework that provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java applications. It promotes a clean separation of concerns between application logic and infrastructure. Some notable companies, such as Netflix, eBay, and LinkedIn, utilize Spring.

Java Frameworks - Hibernate - Bluebird Blog

Hibernate is a powerful ORM framework that ensures robustness and high performance for Java applications. It offers features like automatic dirty checking, second-level caching, and query optimization. 

Java Frameworks - Struts - Bluebird Blog

Struts, a widely-used MVC framework, provides a rich set of UI components and an extensive plugin architecture for Java web applications. Companies like Adobe, VMWare, and eBay employ Struts.

These frameworks represent a selection of the most popular options for backend development in Java. Depending on specific requirements, there are many others to choose from. With multiple options available, finding the right framework for any project is attainable.

Java Frameworks for Frontend

There are several Java frameworks available for frontend development. This section will introduce some of the most popular ones.

Java Frameworks - GWT - Bluebird Blog

One standout framework is the Google Web Toolkit (GWT), which enables developers to create web applications using Java. GWT compiles Java code into JavaScript, compatible with modern web browsers. High-profile companies such as Google, LinkedIn, and Amazon utilize GWT.

Java Frameworks - Vaadin - Bluebird Blog

Another popular framework is Vaadin, an open-source option that also allows developers to create web applications using Java. Vaadin uses reusable UI components called widgets, streamlining development and eliminating the need to start from scratch with each new user interface.

Java Frameworks - Wicket - Bluebird Blog

For those seeking a lightweight framework, Wicket is worth considering. Wicket is component-based and simplifies the development of reusable UI components. Wicket applications are built using HTML and CSS, making them easily deployable and maintainable.

Java Frameworks - Play - Bluebird Blog

Lastly, the Play framework is tailored for web applications and boasts a lightweight, stateless, web-friendly architecture. With Play, it becomes effortless to build scalable applications that can run on any platform.

These are a few of the most popular Java frameworks for frontend development. Whether in need of a heavyweight or lightweight solution, there is a framework suitable for any development project.

If you Need Java Developers

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