Comprehensive Guide to Penetration Testing

Zoltan Fehervari

January 21, 2023

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We have put together a guide that covers standard methodologies, best practices, and misconceptions of penetration testing, which is essential for your business to protect your networks and data.


As the importance of cybersecurity develops, penetration testing has become an essential tool for businesses looking to protect their networks and data. But, with so many techniques and best practices to consider, deciding where to start can be challenging. In this essay, we will look at the most important aspects of penetration testing, such as standard methodologies and best practices.

Penetration testing - Bluebird

What exactly is penetration testing?

Penetration testing or "pen testing" is, at its most basic, the process of simulating a cyber attack on a computer system, network, or online application in order to uncover vulnerabilities that an attacker could exploit. The purpose of penetration testing is to uncover and prioritize vulnerabilities so that they can be fixed or otherwise mitigated before they can be exploited by a genuine attacker.

There are many different methodologies for conducting pen testing, but some of the most common include:

  • Black box testing simulates an attack by an outsider who has no prior knowledge of the system or network under examination. To find vulnerabilities, the tester is virtually "blind" and must rely on tools and approaches.
  • White box testing simulates an attack by an insider with complete knowledge of the system or network under test. The tester has access to all of the system's source code, configuration files, and other data that an attacker who has previously entered the network would have.
  • Gray box testing is a hybrid of black box and white box testing techniques. The tester has some but not comprehensive understanding of the system or network being tested. This type of testing is frequently used to simulate an attack by a former employee or a partner with network access.

The purpose of penetration testing, regardless of approach, is always the same: to find and prioritize vulnerabilities so that they may be fixed or otherwise neutralized before a genuine attacker has a chance to exploit them.

Penetration Testing Best Practices

There are a few essential best practices for pen testing that organizations should follow to achieve the most successful and efficient testing possible. Among these best practices are:

  • Specify the scope of the testing clearly: Before starting any penetration testing, it is critical to define the scope of the testing. This includes what systems and networks will be evaluated, the sorts of vulnerabilities that will be looked for, and the testing objectives.
  • Make use of both automated and manual testing: While automated testing methods can help find vulnerabilities fast, they should not be used primarily. Manual testing is also crucial because it can help identify flaws that automated tools may overlook.
  • Employ a diversified team of testers: Pen testing is a complicated process that necessitates a diverse set of skills and knowledge. It is critical to have a varied team of testers with knowledge in programming, network administration, and security to ensure the most successful testing possible
  • Contact the organization: It is critical to engage with the organization throughout the testing process to ensure that testing is done in a way that minimizes disruption to normal operations.
Penetration testing steps

What are the most frequent tools used in penetration testing?

Pen testing tools automate the process of detecting flaws in systems, networks, and applications. The following are some regularly used tools:

  • Vulnerability scanners such as Nessus and OpenVAS may detect known flaws in systems and applications.
  • Metasploit: An exploit code development and execution framework.
  • Nmap: A network scanner for detecting open ports and services on a target host.
  • Wireshark is a packet sniffer that captures network information and analyzes it for evidence of vulnerabilities or malicious activities.
  • Burp Suite is a web application security testing tool for identifying vulnerabilities in online applications.

How frequently should a company undertake penetration testing?

The frequency of pen testing will vary according to the organization and its unique requirements. However, firms should do penetration testing at least once a year, and more frequently if they deal with sensitive data or are vulnerable to cyber threats. Penetration testing should also be performed by organizations following any substantial changes to their systems or networks.


One prevalent misunderstanding is that pen testing is only required in large businesses. Small and medium-sized firms, on the other hand, are vulnerable to cyber attacks. Another common myth is that penetration testing is only required in particular businesses, such as finance or healthcare. However, frequent testing can assist all firms, regardless of industry.

Penetration test - Bluebird

What are the legal considerations for conducting a penetration test?

Because it entails attempting to exploit weaknesses in systems and networks without authorisation, penetration testing may be a legal quagmire. As a result, before conducting a penetration test, it is critical to secure formal permission from the owner of the system or network.
It is also critical to verify that the testing is carried out within the bounds of the law and without causing any harm or damage to the systems or data. Some nations have special rules and regulations that must be obeyed while performing the testing; it is critical to become acquainted with them before beginning a test.
Before beginning the test, it is usually advisable to have a legal counsel analyze the testing scope, agreements, and any other associated paperwork.

3 Fun facts

  1. 1
    The first known penetration test was conducted in the 1970s by the United States government on their own systems to identify vulnerabilities.
  2. 2
    Some of the earliest computer viruses were created for the purpose of pen testing.
  3. 3
    Today, there are various certifications and qualifications that a professional penetration tester can obtain, such as the Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) and Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP)

Closing words

Finally, penetration testing is an important component of any cybersecurity plan, and businesses should take the time to learn about the various approaches and best practices involved. Organizations may detect and prioritize vulnerabilities, as well as take the required actions to mitigate them, by combining automated and manual testing and assembling a team of testers with a wide set of capabilities. Furthermore, frequent penetration testing should be carried out to verify the network and systems' security. Keep in mind that prevention is preferable to cure!

Keep in mind that pen testing is not a one-time occurrence. To stay up with the ever-changing threat landscape, it's a continual process that involves ongoing monitoring and upgrading. Organizations may guarantee that they are doing all possible to safeguard their networks and data against cyber assaults by following the recommended practices suggested in this article.

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