Top 8 Backend Technologies In 2023

Backend Programming Languages, Frameworks And Databases You Need To Know

Balazs Refi

February 12, 2023

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Backend technologies used by Facebook or LinkedIn. We've compiled a list of the most popular backend languages, frameworks and databases.


What is Backend?

The backend encompasses everything outside of the frontend's realm.

The backend is the server side of a 3-tier application. It serves as the middle layer between the frontend, which is the client-side interface, and the data tier. It is responsible for processing business logic and accessing the data tier.

However, it is important to mention that in some cases, some parts of business logic might appear on the frontend. The more logic appears there, the thicker the frontend tier will be. 

Backend technologies include server-side programming languages, backend frameworks, and databases. 

What is backend? Bluebird blog

The Most Popular Backend Technologies

Backend Technology Elements - Bluebird Blog

Let's look at back-end development tools one by one!

We'll start with programming languages, highlighting the most popular backend frameworks in use today. We'll also show you which well-known companies use which backend programming languages.

In addition, we'll take a closer look at some databases and communication systems.

If your project is based on any of the technologies listed below and you require experienced senior backend developers, please let us know and we will assist you on a daily rate.

Top 8 Backend Programming Languages And Frameworks

Backend Technologies - Java Icon - Bluebird Blog


The Java programming language has been used by back-end developers for over 20 years, and for good reason. It's versatile, platform-independent, object-oriented, and general-purpose, which makes it one of the most popular programming languages across multiple industries.

Oracle acquired Java (originally a Sun Microsystems product) in 2010. It can be used for Android application development, web applications development, image processing, game development, and almost anything else. According to Oracle, more than 12 million developers (nowadays mostly backend developers) use the Java programming language.

To read more about Java Frameworks, check out our blog post.

Popular Java Backend Frameworks

Backend Technologies - Spring Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Struts Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Hibernate Icon - Bluebird Blog

Discover more about Spring, Struts, and Hibernate!

Notable Websites Using Java Backend Technology

Twitter, LinkedIn, and eBay. In addition, NASA also prefers Java for backend development.

If you Are Short On Java Developers

We can provide Java developers for your projects for a daily fee. Contact us!


PHP is a general-purpose, server-side language. It's mainly used for building dynamic websites. It can also run from the command prompt and is used to build client-side applications. It is highly compatible with various content management systems like WordPress and Joomla.

Today, about 80% of websites use PHP. It can be used to build dynamic websites, manage forms and cookies, programming server-side file commands and also to create desktop applications.

To read more about PHP Frameworks, check out our blog post.

Popular PHP Backend Frameworks

Backend Technologies - Laravel Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - CodeIgniter Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Symfony Icon - Bluebird Blog

Learn more about Laravel, CodeIgniter, and Symfony.

Notable websites using PHP Backend

Facebook, Wikipedia, Tumblr, Slack, DocuSign, WordPress, Yahoo.

Backend Technologies - PHP Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Python Icon - Bluebird Blog


If you're looking for a programming language whose popularity is growing by the day, Python is a good candidate. It's a versatile programming language. Its syntax is simple and easy to understand with code that's elegant and highly readable, even for junior developers. It is unquestionably a popular choice.

It's an open-source, high-level programming language that is extremely efficient. (High-level here signifies a high level of abstraction, meaning it's closer to human language than most other programming languages.) This means it can express complex concepts and logic using fewer lines of code.

Python can be used for web development, machine learning, AI development, game development, desktop application development, and also for web crawler development. The use of Python among back-end technologies is growing day by day.

To read more about Python Frameworks, check out our blog post.

Backend Technologies - Django Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Flask Icon - Bluebird Blog

Explore Django, and Flask!

Notable Websites Using Python Backend

Among countless others, Mozilla, Spotify, Pinterest, Google, Facebook, and Youtube have used it.

More About Python Backend

1. You can explore Python in detail by reading our blog post on the topic.

2. The demand for Python skills is increasing. If you're looking for Python developers, we can provide Python developers for your projects for a daily fee. Contact us!

Backend technologies - Bluebird blog
Most Popular Backend Frameworks - 2022 - Bluebird  Blog


We know, we know. JavaScript is not included here by mistake. Even though it's known as a frontend scripting language in frontend development, there are some software application frameworks (ex.: Node.js) that can be used for back-end development.

A Node.js backend can provide excellent scalability and speed, which is essential for websites with high traffic. Development time can be a fraction of other programming languages given that both frontend and backend use JavaScript.

Popular JavaScript Backend Frameworks

Backend Technologies - NextJS Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - ExpressJS Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - nodeJS Icon - Bluebird Blog

Learn more about Next.js, Express.js, and node.js.

Notable Websites Using JavaScript Backend

LinkedIn, eBay, PayPal, Netflix, and Uber, but Google also uses it.

If you Are Short On JavaScript Developers

We can provide JavaScript developers for your projects for a daily fee.

Contact us!

Backend Technologies - JavaScript - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Kotlin Icon - Bluebird Blog


Kotlin is an ideal programming language for backend development. It enables the creation of concise and expressive codes. A great advantage of Kotlin is its compatibility with Java. This was the original plan: JetBrains aimed to create a modern, safe and interoperable language for JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Other uniqueness: Kotlin was developed to dynamize the sales of IDEA.

Currently, Kotlin is one of the most dynamically growing languages on GitHub.

The good old Java libraries are accessible from Kotlin anytime.

Notable Websites Using Kotlin Backend

Trello, Shazam, Uber, Postmates, Evernote, Kickstarter, Coursera, etc.


Ruby is a general-purpose open-source programming language. It can be used for web application development, including e-commerce solutions or streaming services.

The Ruby on Rails framework can be used for developing web applications. Ruby's main advantage lies in its high scalability, speed and cost-efficiency, as its codes are clear and consistent.

However,  its popularity among backend technologies is declining. Not long ago, Ruby on Rails was the most popular backend framework, but now it is only the fifth on the list.

Ruby documentation is hard to come by, and it can be problematic in the case of web applications for which running time is a key factor. It is less widespread than other programming languages.

Popular Ruby Backend Frameworks

Backend Technologies - Ruby on Rails Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Sinatra Icon - Bluebird Blog

Notable Websites Using Ruby Backend

Airbnb, GitHub, and Shopify, among others.

Backend Technologies - Ruby Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - Go Icon - Bluebird Blog


Go (or Golang) is a relatively new, open-source programming language developed by Google. It's syntactically similar to C; it also has clear syntax. It was released in 2009, and its popularity as a backend development tool has been growing ever since.

The number of open-source projects written in Go has grown rapidly over the past decade, and many large technology companies (such as Dropbox and Uber) have adopted it for their infrastructure and services. 

Go is very efficient in managing concurrent users (millions of users can use the same online service at the same time). Some of its other advantages are speed, simplicity, automatic memory management, and scalability.

Notable Websites Using Go Backend

Google, Dropbox, and Docker.


C# is one of the most popular, object-oriented programming languages of the .NET framework. Previously .NET applications were only available for Windows, but in 2016 .NET Core was introduced.

With the arrival of .NET Core, Microsoft made .NET available on macOS and Linux.

Popular Websites Using C# backend

MSN, Bing, StackOverflow, GoDaddy.

Backend Technologies - CSharp Icon - Bluebird Blog

Top Backend Frameworks (2012-2022) - Historical Overview Of Backend Technologies


Choose The Right Backend Languages For Your Business!

Backend technologies - Bluebird

Comparison of back-end technologies based on popularity, active community, and job offerings.

* source:

** source: Bluebirds own internal survey based on the number of requests in IT Recruitment and IT Staff Augmentation


It was measured based on the PYPL (Popularity of Programming Language) index. Google calculates the index based on how frequently users google for training materials for a given programming language.

Community Size

The number of registered questions about the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)

The Size of the Active Community

The number of active threads related to the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)

Freelancer: How Easy It Is to Find a Project as a Freelancer

Bluebird’s own internal survey is based on the number of incoming project requests in IT Staff Augmentation.

Employees: How Easy It Is to Find a Project as an Employee

Bluebird’s own internal survey is based on the number of incoming project requests in IT Recruitment.

Top 3 Databases

Backend Technologies - Oracle Icon - Bluebird Blog

Oracle Database

Oracle Database is a powerful relational database management system designed for enterprise-level applications and data warehousing. It provides robust features for managing large amounts of data, which makes it an ideal choice for mission-critical applications.

The first step in designing an Oracle database is to understand the project requirements. That means you'll need to identify the data that needs to be stored and the relationships between the data, but also the performance and scalability requirements.

Once you have the project requirements, the next step is to design the logical and physical database structures. This involves creating the data model, which defines the relationships between the tables and columns, and the data dictionary, which contains metadata about the structure and content of the database.

Oracle Database provides a wide range of tools and technologies to support database design. This includes the Data Modeler, which is used to create and manage the data model, and the Enterprise Manager, which provides a graphical interface for managing the database.

Because it was designed to be a "single point of control" for Oracle, the Enterprise Manager enables users to manage and monitor a wide range of Oracle products.

Oracle Database provides a range of key features, such as partitioning, compression, and indexing, which can be used to optimize database performance and scalability.

MySQL Database

MySQL is also an Oracle product. It's a widely used, open-source relational database management system that has been a cornerstone of the tech industry for decades. It's stable, scalable, and easy to use.

MySQL supports a variety of data types including integer, floating-point, string, date and time, and binary data types. However, it doesn't support some complex data types that MSSQL does (more on MSSQL in a bit).

MySQL's key features are transaction handling, indexing, and partitioning, which can be used to optimize database performance and scalability.

As an added bonus, MySQL has a strong community of developers and users who have contributed to the development of the system and its ecosystem of tools and technologies. This includes the MySQL Workbench, a graphical tool for designing and managing the data model, and the MySQL command line, which provides a text-based interface for managing the database.

Backend Technologies - MySQL Icon - Bluebird Blog
Backend Technologies - MSSQL Icon - Bluebird Blog

MSSQL Database

Microsoft SQL Server, commonly known as MSSQL, is a powerful and versatile relational database management system. It has advanced security features, scalability, and support for big data and analytics. However, as opposed to MySQL (which is an open-source system), MSSQL requires a licence to use.

It can handle complex data structures and relationships with ease, and it's more suited for managing large and complex data sets than MySQL.

MSSQL has a strong ecosystem of tools and technologies that make it easy for developers and database administrators to create and manage a database.

This includes the Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio, a graphical tool for designing and managing the data model, and the Microsoft SQL Server Data Tools, which provides a visual user interface for developing and deploying database applications.

Quick History - The Most Popular Databases


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